"The universe is like a safe to
which there is a combination – but the combination is locked up in the safe."
How did the universe come into being? This is a question
that cognoscente beings have grappled with since the beginning of time itself.
The most recent theories that are widely accepted by the scientific community
deal with the big bang. These theorize that the universe came into
existence due to an intense explosion of incredibly dense energy. This gigantic
explosion eventually resulted in our observable universe. But what, or who
created this big bang? Where did it come from? Those questions can now be
intelligently and scientifically answered with a high degree of certainty.
Scientific evidence for the big bang model is abundant. Two
key areas that will be discussed are expansion of the universe and big bang
ripples. Once the validity of the big bang model is introduced, we will
delve into the inner workings of the universe to find out how it began. The
main underlying theory that explains interaction between matter and energy is
known as superstring theory. This theory will be described to give you a
better understanding of the basic building blocks of the universe. By looking
at the instant the big bang occurred, we are able to see how the universe
Implications from superstring theory result in
extra-dimensionality. These are other dimensions that are in our universe, but
are imperceptible to our senses. Extra space and time dimensions explain how
the creator of the universe can exist yet remain unseen. The next section will
investigate the design of our universe. Supporting evidence and a statistical
analysis for the big bang will be shown to rule out the possibility of the
universe coming into existence by chance. Finally, conclusions will be drawn
from the supplied evidence to answer the question “Does God exist?”
Any evidence that deals with the existence or absence of God
must always go back to the creation of the universe. How did we get here? Where
is the creator now if there ever was one? These broad questions can be answered
by looking at the instant of creation, the big bang.
The creation of the universe only has two possible
explanations. Either the universe has always existed, or it was created at some
point in time. All credible scientists agree that the universe had a definite
beginning. The second law of thermodynamics states that energy will continue to
exit from a system in the form of heat. If the universe has existed for an
infinite amount of time, then we can assume that there would be no heat left in
the system. This is obviously not true, so the universe definitely had a
beginning in the finite past. In this section we will examine the big bang
theory that explains how the universe came into being.
The science of astronomy has determined the
universe began approximately 12 billion years ago from an explosion of very
dense matter and energy. There are many facts and much research that support
this date estimation. The facts also state that the universe is still
expanding. In the early years of Albert Einstein, he didn’t believe that his
own equations were right. He wanted to believe that the universe was stationary
and the galaxies were not expanding away from each other. To counteract his
equations, Einstein originally proposed a new gravitational force that would
cancel out the expansion of the universe.
view changed in 1929 when Edwin Hubble proved that the galaxies were expanding
away from each other just as Einstein’s original general relativity calculations predicted. With this evidence provided by
Hubble, Einstein eventually acknowledged "the necessity for a
and "the presence of a superior reasoning power" [:106].
The only model that fits all of the collected
scientific data for the universe is an explosion. Only an explosion that
occurred at some point in the finite past could produce the results that are
visible today. This theory is known as the ‘hot big bang’ model.
The hot big bang model describes the initial explosion of
matter and energy that created the universe. It also explains the effects that
should be noticeable today if this model is accurate. George Gamow originally
derived the hot big bang model in 1946, which is an extension of the original
big bang model. This new model had little scientific evidence for support when
the theory was introduced. In 1965, Bell labs found the first scientific data
to come in defense of Gamow’s theory. Their discovery of background radiation
in the universe was a big step toward proving the accuracy of the hot big bang
model. We will examine both expansion of the universe as well as background
radiation to prove hot big bang model’s legitimacy.
Just after the big bang, atoms and subatomic particles in a
super-dense state were blasted apart from each other. Unless an outside force
acts on these particles, they will continue to expand indefinitely. Even after
billions of years, we can still see the effects of this explosion. In 1922,
Alexander Friedman discovered the first evidence of an expanding universe.
Edwin Hubble confirmed these findings in 1929 when he made use of the Doppler
The Doppler effect states that traveling waves will have
different frequencies depending on the direction of the object. This same basic
principle can be applied to a speeding car. Imagine yourself standing at the
side of a highway. A car coming toward you has a higher frequency sound than a
car moving away from you. This has to do with the time it takes for the sound
waves to travel from the car to your ear. The Doppler effect works the same way
with light waves. Objects moving away will appear more ‘red’ since the light
wavelengths are longer. An object moving toward you will appear more ‘blue’
since light wavelengths are shorter.
Hubble used this principle to develop the ‘law of red
shifts’. He found that galaxies are moving away from us in all directions. The
conclusion that he came to was that the universe is expanding in a uniform fashion.
When this process is reversed, it is evident that all galaxies in the universe
converge to a single point. This is the main underlying evidence for the hot
One of the main predictions of the hot big bang model is a
constant level of background radiation. We can compare this to a nuclear bomb
explosion. Just after the initial blast there is a shockwave that spreads out
and a mushroom cloud that forms at the blast center. After everything returns
to a steady state following the initial explosion, there are still radioactive
isotopes that exist for a very long time. You not only see the effects of the
bomb, but you can measure the radiation it produces after the initial blast. In
much the same way scientists can measure the background microwave radiation
that is a result of the big bang.
The hot big bang model estimates the average temperature of
space as well as a radiation constant that should be present. In 1964, Bell
labs originally discovered cosmic background microwave radiation. A major
breakthrough came in 1990 when the COBE (COsmic Background Explorer) satellite
found ripples at the edge of the universe [].
These signals originated when the universe was only 100 000 years old. They
have been traveling toward us for almost 12 billion years before being
discovered in 1990. Since signals can only travel at the speed of light (299
792 458 m/s), they take time to reach earth.
COBE found that the edge of the universe is very uniform and
spherical in shape. The findings also revealed that galaxies are clumped
together throughout our universe. Galaxies are not evenly distributed as you
might think. As a result, the cosmic background radiation should show some
bumpiness. This is analogous to airflow on the wing of a plane. When air is
evenly distributed, the result is a very smooth flight. If you keep yourself
from looking out the window, you might not even think you were flying. However,
when the air is turbulent and not evenly distributed, the plane begins to
buffet from the regions of high pressure to the regions of low pressure. This
results in a very bumpy flight. The same can be said about cosmic background
The matter that we interact with every day is made of
protons, neutrons and electrons. This is known as ‘ordinary matter’ that
strongly interacts with radiation. Therefore, if radiation is smooth after
traveling through this matter, the matter itself is likewise smooth and evenly
distributed. However, the results that astronomers obtained from COBE were quite
unexpected. In 1990, COBE recorded cosmic background radiation that fit the
smooth model down to 0.0001% accuracy, even though galaxies in our universe are
Why is this? These results are due to exotic matter. This
matter very weakly interacts with radiation and has a way of smoothing cosmic
radiation before reaching earth. Exotic matter is necessary for the big bang to
be a plausible theory. The Hubble telescope further substantiated the results
of COBE with the use of gravitational lensing. Exotic matter is
difficult to detect, but the gravitational lens technique confirmed that the
universe contains anywhere between two to ten times as much exotic matter as
ordinary matter [].
This confirms the hot big bang model, and allows the cosmic
background radiation to be relatively smooth while the galaxies are clumped
together throughout the universe. The results from COBE are shown in Figure 1. The graph is shown in waves per centimeter versus
radiation intensity. The hot big bang model theoretical curve is shown as a
solid line. Experimental results are shown as points. The experimental and
theoretical results completely overlap, giving accurate experimental proof for
the hot big bang model.
Figure 1 – Cosmic
Microwave Background Spectrum Radiation from COBE []
From cosmic background radiation, it is possible to derive
the current average temperature of the universe. COBE found that the average
blackbody distribution had a temperature of -270.265 degrees Celsius (2.735
degrees Celsius above absolute zero). This directly corresponds to one of the
hot big bang model predictions.
Current scientific evidence for the big bang can only
account for what happens after the universe is 10-34 seconds old [].
This presently represents the limit of research that today’s enormous
superconductors can perform. Quantum mechanics theories that try to explain
what happened before that time are nothing more than guesses.
Now that we have established the hot big bang model’s
accuracy it is necessary to ask the question, “How was the big bang caused?” To
answer this question, one must look at current theories describing what
happened after the first 10-34 seconds of the universe. Superstring
theory provides an intricate description of the big bang and its repercussions.
Superstring theory gives a reasonable and logical explanation as to how the universe
formed. By understanding the basic structure of the universe we can determine
how the big bang was caused.
As science progresses, new theories are developed to explain
our physical universe. Historical theories over the past century have given
mankind a glimpse at the underlying structure of the universe. Building on
theories created by Albert Einstein, a new breed of theories attempts to
combine large and small physics into a single set of equations that will
accurately describe all aspects of the universe. In this section, we will look
at historical theories that brought us to where we are today. We will also look
at current theories such as superstrings that are very close to providing a
logical answer to the development and existence of the universe. This will lead
into implications caused by superstrings and how they relate to the beginning
of the universe.
“If I have seen further than others,
it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” (Sir Isaac Newton).
Each successive generation learns and advances from existing
developmental theories. As Sir Isaac Newton noted, his work was only made
possible because of those who came before him. As we take a look at existing theories
that attempt to explain the universe, it is essential to look at historical
scientific work that results in present day theories.
In 1905, Albert Einstein stunned the scientific community
with his theory of special relativity. He worked ‘outside the box’ in four
dimensions, treating time as an extra dimension in addition to height, width
and depth. By 1915, Einstein expanded his calculations to produce the theory of
When Einstein first introduced special relativity and later
general relativity, the scientific community mocked him for even suggesting the
notion. However, by 1928 Einstein’s general relativity equations were already
being experimentally substantiated. Scientists and mathematicians began to discover
the far-reaching implications of his equations. The accuracy of general
relativity is now known to within a trillionth of a percent, or 14 decimal
places of precision [:229-231].
These equations predict a universe that burst forth and is still expanding from
its early infinitely dense state [:42-49].
In 1966, astrophysicists George Ellis, Stephen Hawking and
Roger Penrose expanded Einstein’s relativity equations. They concluded that
there must be a singular origin in the finite past for not only matter and
energy, but space and time as well. This is now known as the space-time theorem
of general relativity.
The top scientific minds in our world still struggle with
finding a single set of equations that explain both large and small operations
of matter and energy. Major advancements were made in the last 100 years to
produce mathematics and theories that would explain our physical universe, but
we have yet to find the single unifying theory. Einstein worked on this problem
for the last 25 years of his life. He tried to make the pieces of the puzzle
fit together between quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Quantum mechanics explains the complex world of atomic and
subatomic particles. It deals with electrons, protons, neutrons and their
strange interaction with each other. Quantum Field Theory (QFT) goes
deeper, looking at subatomic particles such as quarks, leptons, tachyons,
gravitons and antimatter. With the standard model of particle
physics, those subatomic particles are considered to be points with a specific
mass (or lack thereof), electrical charge, velocity, vector and spin. These
characteristics are used to show the four types of interactions between
The four types of particle interactions are:
In the 1970s quarks and leptons were
discovered. Quarks are always held together by ‘strong’ nuclear forces that are
observable as larger particles such as protons and neutrons. The strong nuclear
forces are dominant over electromagnetism at subnuclear distances and act only
on quarks. There are also ‘weak’ nuclear forces that act on both quarks and
leptons alike. Weak nuclear forces are responsible for holding electrons
(consisting of leptons) in orbit around the core of an atom.
For QFT equations to work, electromagnetism in addition to
strong and weak nuclear forces are taken into account. However, gravity is left
out of the equation. When gravity is included in the QFT equations, the gravimetric
force between two gravitons approaches infinity, which is impossible. When
gravity is neglected, quantum mechanics works flawlessly and has been proven to
be accurate. General relativity does account for gravity, but cannot adequately
explain what happens at the atomic and subatomic levels.
It is still unknown how these forces interact with gravity
to produce the physical world that we see and touch. The quest is on to find a
viable set of equations that bring together both quantum mechanics and general
relativity while including gravity in the equation.
To explain subatomic interactions properly, we must include
gravity in the equation. Since quantum field theory does not account for gravity,
string theory was developed to explain the composition of the universe, which
later evolved into superstring theory. Physicists are hopeful that these will
one day give birth to the Unified Field Theory.
As we discussed
earlier, all interactions between particles in the standard model of physics
assumes that particles are points. This does not leave much flexibility when it
comes to designing equations to explain the physical universe. In string
theory, these particle points are replaced with a fundamental building block
called a ‘string’. You can think of this as the same type of string that you
use to sew a button back onto a shirt. When you are working with strings, they
can be either open or closed. As time progresses, these strings can either
trace out a sheet or a tube, for open and closed strings respectively (Figure 2).
Figure 2 – Open and
These strings have
different vibration levels that correspond to various particle types. Since
different particles are seen as different masses or subatomic spins (integer
and odd half integer spins), strings can be any type of subatomic particle.
This idea is analogous to LEGO. You have a bunch of LEGO building blocks
(strings) in front of you, and you can build different shapes and structures.
Once the LEGO is snapped together into a shape, you cannot change that shaped
unless you take it apart.
Now imagine each
piece of LEGO contains a magnet. Once you snap different LEGO pieces together,
it takes a lot of effort to take them apart again. The forces that hold an
individual LEGO piece together are strong and weak nuclear forces. The forces
between different LEGO pieces are electromagnetism and gravity. Just as in
physics, only certain LEGO pieces can be fitted together with others. They need
to have the right pegs to fit the holes of the next piece of LEGO.
Strings take on
different characteristics depending on their vibration level, or ‘note’. The
strings on a guitar vibrate at different frequencies producing various notes.
This can be thought of in the same way for string theory. Depending on the
frequency vibration of the string, it could appear as a quark, lepton, photon,
graviton, or any other subatomic or elemental particle. These are the basic
LEGO pieces that make up our universe. For a string particle state example,
please refer to Appendix A.
String theory can
only work when a graviton is used in the equations. This is of particular
interest to physicists since the quantum field theory produces erroneous
results when a graviton is introduced. String theory correctly uses all four
types of particle interactions mentioned in Section 3.1.2.
developed string theory, they found that it only described the forces and
energy that made up the universe, but did not describe matter. Superstring
theory expands on string theory to create a better set of equations that
include both matter and energy.
Superstring theory builds on string theory to include all
matter and energy. Depending on whether a particle is matter or energy depends
on the type of spin that particle exhibits. Bosons have an integer spin
and consist of energy particles that carry forces. These forces are present in
particles such as gravitons for gravity and gluons for strong nuclear forces. Fermions
have an odd half integer spin and make up the physical matter that we can see
and touch. Strings vibrate at certain frequencies to produce quarks and
leptons, which in turn make up protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are the
basics building blocks of matter. Bosons and fermions always occur in pairs,
interacting to make up matter and the corresponding forces that act on our
With the advancement of superstring theory came three
different approaches. Two of these approaches used closed strings, while the
third used open strings. All three theories were mathematically consistent, and
none of them could be ruled out. As time progressed, physicists found that
these three theories were all part of the same underlying theory.
three superstring theories gives us a set of equations that bring us closer to discovering
the unified field theory. There are still many uncharted areas for
superstrings. At present, trying to describe the unified field theory using
existing superstring theory is like describing the intricacies of a car by
looking at the engine through a microscope. You need to know about many areas
of the car before you can know the larger picture of what it looks like.
Now that we have looked at strings and superstrings, we will
discuss the main implications of these theories, and how they relate to the big
What do Superstrings Prove?
Superstrings were briefly discussed, giving you a general
understanding of the subject matter. Now we will build on the theory of
superstrings, explaining how it relates to the big bang and the beginning of the
We live in a universe with the following four dimensions:
Any viable string theory must fit into these observable
space-time dimensions. Current superstring theories only work in a universe
with a minimum of ten dimensions. Fermionic strings (those that produce matter)
also require a minimum of ten dimensions for their multidimensional equation to
How can there be ten or more dimensions, yet we can only see three dimensions
and experience time? Any extra dimensions must be compacted so that we do not
observe them in our four dimensions. These extra dimensions are curled up very
tightly so that we are never aware of their existence. This dimensional
compacting can be traced back to the very start of the big bang, before they
Compact dimensions that we cannot see allow for degrees of
freedom for fermions and bosons. For instance, the electric charge of an
electron would simply be motion in a compacted dimension. This electric charge
motion is there, except we cannot see it since it is in the other dimension.
Rather, we measure the effects of that extra-dimensional motion as the charge
of the electron. This theory dates back to the 1920s. New discoveries in both
math and physics are bringing these old theories to life again.
By using these compact dimensions, physicists are better
able to theorize what happened before the universe was 10-34 seconds
old. At the instant the big bang started, there were ten dimensions. Once the
universe was 10-34 seconds old, six of those ten dimensions are
compacted, leaving us with the four dimensions that we know as our universe
But how did the initial big bang happen in the first place?
Evidence suggests that this grand design did not come into existence on its
own. The following section discusses the intricate design of our universe and
the statistical probability that it came into existence purely by chance.
“The further the spiritual evolution
of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine
religiosity does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and
blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.” (Albert
It is difficult to deny the complexity of the universe in
which we live. Trying to understand everything from strings and atoms to stars
and galaxies is almost incomprehensible to the human mind. In previous
sections, we dealt with scientific explanations to explain why the universe
exists in its present form. In this section we will explore the results of the
big bang, as well as the statistical probability that such a design would be
able to support life. This evidence will be used to reason if the universe had
a creator, namely God.
Any first year university philosophy student
realizes that two true premises result in a true conclusion, as long as the
conclusion is a result of the premises. This basic philosophical approach is
used in Table 1 to reason that the universe has a cause.
Table 1 – Cause for the
Whatever begins to exist must have a cause.
The Universe began to exist.
Therefore the Universe has a cause. []
Is it more logical to believe that the
universe simply came into existence out of nothing, or that it was created?
Since the universe is finite and there was nothing before the beginning of the universe,
something must have created it. Furthermore, that something must be outside of
time, space, and matter to accomplish this task. Therefore, it logically
follows that the universe had a cause. That cause was the creator, God, who
created the universe.
For the universe to exist in its present form, there are
almost an infinite number of cosmological constants needed to keep the universe
stable. These constants control everything from the spin radius of an electron
around the nucleus of an atom, to the speed of light. If there were no
constants in this universe, it would cease to exist as we know it. Scientists
have formed a group of 75 cosmological constants that are absolutely essential
to the formation of life. These constants are listed in Appendix B, giving the statistical probability for the formation
of our universe to sustain life.
Two of the constants listed in Appendix B are strong nuclear forces and the expansion rate of
the universe. If strong nuclear forces are just two percent less, nuclei are
destroyed. If strong nuclear forces are two percent more, matter is prevented
from forming. The same results are true when looking at the expansion rate of
the universe. When the expansion rate is less by one part in 1012,
the universe would collapse very early in its formation. If the expansion rate
is greater by one part in 106, stars would never even get a chance
to form .
Using the constants from Appendix
B, the probability that the universe formed to support
life is 10-99. This is analogous to the probability of a tornado
touching down in a junkyard, rearranging all of the parts, and leaving a fully
operational Boeing 747 in its wake. This incomprehensible event wouldn’t happen
only once, it would happen a million times! Such an event is nearly impossible,
and so is the creation of our universe without God.
The evidence is overwhelming. To suggest that the universe
formed completely by chance is statistically improbable. A much more logical
answer is that God, the creator, carefully formed the universe so it could support
life. Intelligent life is also a direct result of the creator. The topics
discussed are much too complicated and precise to occur without a master
designer. That master designer is God, the creator of the heavens and the
How could God exist before time began? Where could he exist
before the universe started if there was no space? Where is God if we cannot
see Him? These are questions that can be answered by looking at the
extra-dimensionality of God to explain the big bang. We will look at extra
space dimensions beyond height, width, and depth that we are familiar with.
Additional time dimensions will also be examined and described to help you
understand how the universe came into being in the first place. It is
superstring theory that gives us this background to talk about
At the instant of the big bang, there were ten dimensions.
When the universe was 10-34 seconds old, six of those ten dimensions
stopped expanding and never produced any matter. The remaining four dimensions
continued expanding, eventually forming atoms, molecules, stars and galaxies.
The six remaining dimensions still exist, but they are invisible to us since
they are so tightly curled up in the space-time continuum. We will give you an
understanding of these extra dimensions, and discuss the implications they have
on the creation of our universe, as well as the creator.
The world that we know exists in four dimensions; height,
width, depth and time. The laws of physics require that all universal matter
and energy be constrained to these dimensions [:90-96]. Superstring theory suggests that there were
at least 10 dimensions when the universe was created, and these dimensions
still exist today.
To help with the understanding of extra space dimensions, an
example will be used to extend two dimensions into three dimensions. As shown
in Figure 3, the two-dimensional people depicted live on a flat
Imagine that 2D man wants to meet 2D woman. How is he going
to do this? The line that separates them goes infinitely up and down. Since
they are only in two-dimensional space, 2D man cannot go around the line. What
should he do? If he could travel into 3D space, he would simply jump over the
line and introduce himself to 2D woman.
Figure 3 – Two
Dimensional Man and Woman
We can use the same idea when going from three dimensions into
four dimensions. In four dimensions it is possible to turn a basketball inside
out without cutting it. You can also walk through a wall. You don’t actually
walk through it, but you walk around it into the fourth dimension. This is
identical to jumping over a line on a flat two-dimensional plane by going into
the third dimension.
God can reside in these extra dimensions to watch over us.
He can do this without us ever seeing Him, yet He can always see us. This is analogous
to us seeing the two-dimensional people in Figure
3, yet they can never see us. This would explain how
the creator of the universe can be undetectable by our senses yet reside in our
universe. He can also interact with our universe, just like you can interact
with the two-dimensional plane in Figure
Since there are more dimensions than those we see, why did
God limit us to only three space dimensions? Life cannot exist in any more or
any less than three dimensions [:32].
Gravity varies with the inverse square of the distance in three-dimensional
(). Only in three dimensions does gravity hold together solar
systems and galaxies to sustain life. In four dimensions gravity varies with
the inverse cubed distance. Gravity continues to have less of an effect when
more dimensions are added. Only in three dimensions does the universe have the
correct properties to prosper.
Electromagnetism is also completely dependant on our three
dimensional space. If there were more than three dimensions, electrons would
not be able to hold their orbit around an atom. They would spiral away from or
into the atomic nuclei they are orbiting. This prohibits any complex atoms from
forming. Therefore, it is only possible for our universe to exist in
All of these variables suggest that the universe did not
simply come together as some chance event. Rather, the universe was intelligently
designed, and continues to operate as it has since the beginning of time. Since
there are additional space dimensions in our universe, it also goes to reason
that there are additional time dimensions as well. These extra time dimensions
will now be discussed and evaluated.
How did time begin? Superstring theory states that neither
space nor time existed before the big bang. After the big bang, 3 space
dimensions and a single universal time line dimension began to exist in our observable
universe. The remaining time dimensions are compressed just like the additional
space dimensions. It is relatively easy to accept that space and matter can be
created at the time of the big bang, but how could time be created?
The universe must have a cause (discussed in Section 4.1). For something to be created, it must have a
creator. Hence, since the universe was created, it must have a creator. The
question arises, ‘Who created the creator God?’ The answer is nobody. God has
always existed and will always exist. This extends to provide the only logical
explanation for the creation of time. Since God lives outside of time itself,
he existed before time. When the big bang occurred, he created space and time
dimensions. It was only then that time began. Before that point, according to
superstring theory, there was no time.
Time as we know it moves along a straight line at a constant
speed. It is not possible to move backward along this line, but it is possible
to change the speed at which time passes. According to general relativity, time
is variable. It is dependent on the curvature of space, which is in turn
dependant on gravity as well as your speed relative to the speed of light. For
example, the closer you get to the speed of light, the slower time will pass.
What does this have to do with the creator?
Even though we may be able to alter the speed at which we
travel through time, we cannot stop time from passing. God on the other hand
can be anywhere in time, and everywhere in time with the addition of just one
more time dimension.
“For a thousand years in your sight are like a day that has
just gone by, or like a watch in the night.” (Psalm 90:4, NIV) [:876].
With the addition of just one more time dimension, God could
travel anywhere or everywhere in time. Just as you can touch more than two
points on the same line if you were in two-dimensional space, the creator of
time can do the same thing. In this simple example of only one extra time
dimension, it is possible to travel backward, forward, and even sideways in
time. Going sideways in time would allow God to spend an infinite amount of
time in our timeline at one particular point. This concept of our universal
timeline existing on a two-dimensional plane is illustrated in Figure 4.
Figure 4 – Universal
Timeline Along a 2D Plane
The two-dimensional plane in Figure 4 extends infinitely in all directions. The linear
timeline has a definite starting point and end point. As you can see, God can
be at all points on the time line simultaneously. He can exist outside of our
time with the addition of just one more time dimension. What if time were
three-dimensional for God? The possibilities are staggering.
Even with this simple example, it is possible to understand
what a universe with more than one dimension of time would be like. The same
question can be asked about time that was asked about space, ‘Why are we limited
to only one time dimension?’ Superstrings, the theory of general relativity,
and time-space itself are testaments that the observable universe could not
exist if there were more than one time dimension.
With all of this scientific evidence and proof, conclusions
can now be made about the creation of the universe. Does the big bang prove the
existence of God?
"Fix reason firmly in her seat,
and call on her tribunal for every fact, every opinion. Question with boldness
even the existence of a God, because, if there be one, he must more approve of
the homage of reason than that of blind faith." (Thomas Jefferson,
The creation of the universe from the big bang was not a
chance event. There are many contributing factors such as universal constants,
superstrings and extra-dimensionality. The statistical probability is 10-99
that these universal constants would all have the proper values to form a
life-supporting universe. This is statistically improbable. Even if this
statistically improbable event did happen to occur by chance, no scientific
explanation can be formulated as to how the big bang was initiated in the first
place. Nothing cannot create nothing. For something to come into being, there
must be a cause. The only logical explanation for the cause of the universe is
God not only caused the big bang to occur, God also shaped
the universal constants that determine matter and energy interactions. There
are almost an infinite number of finely tuned values in our universe that allow
for the existence of life. Strong nuclear forces, gravity and the speed of
light are just a few of the constants that keep our universe functioning. All
of these constants were determined the instant the big bang occurred.
Superstring theory has given mankind a deeper look into the
intricacies of the universe, and how it was formed. Rather than providing all
the answers, superstring theory brings us one step closer to understanding
creation and God. God exists in dimensions that are imperceptible to our human
senses. Extra space dimensions that are needed for superstring theory to work
explain how God can be with us, yet we are not able to see Him. Additional time
dimensions explain some claims of the bible that God’s time is different than
our linear timeline. Since the universe had a definite beginning, it can be
concluded that God exists both inside and outside of time. Before the creation
of the universe, there was no time or space, there was only God.
"In the beginning, God created the
heavens and the earth."
(Genesis 1:1, NIV) [13:6].
Such a simple statement encapsulates the incredibly complex
creation event. All of this began nearly 12 billion years ago with collapsing
superstrings and the big bang. Does it take more faith to believe that our
universe came into existence as a cosmological accident, or that God created
the universe? From a purely scientific standpoint, the only rational
explanation is that God created our universe, and then created mankind in His
“When I consider your heavens, the
work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, what
is man that you are mindful of him? O Lord, our Lord, how majestic your name in
all the earth!”
(Psalm 8:3-4,9, NIV) [13:786].